Modern chemical synthesis techniques have allowed for improved incorporation of nano‐scale additives into solid propellants. Various. Kumar Ishitha, P. A. Ramakrishna. () Activated charcoal: as burn rate modifier and its mechanism of action in non-metalized composite solid propellants. The combustion of hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) propellants containing ne ammonium perchlo- rate (AP) was investigated using laser-excited, .

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The combustion mechanism has higher complexity as new components are added, because there are the elementary reactions for each component decomposition and their interactions in chamber, as well as the formation and decomposition of new intermediary species, especially in the flame region. Then AP was mixed with the nano-CuO with the weight ratio of 4: The activation energy determined by applying these methods is the sum of activation energies of chemical reactions and physical processes in thermal decomposition and therefore it is called apparent.

Indexed in Science Citation Index Expanded. The hydrogen chloride can easily dissolve in water and create corrosive hydrochloric acid. The mean value of combustion heat in Table 3 is increased steadily with the kneading time increase. From the combustion data in Tables 3 and 4as the kneading time is increasing, the RSD of combustion heat is decreasing sharply.

Accelerated aging of AP/HTPB propellants and the influence of various environmen :: TNO Repository

App from the situation in Table 6the decomposition temperatures of the propellants, in Table 2are still decreasing with the increase of kneading time after 3 hours. That is to say, after 3 hours kneading, the dispersibility of nano-CuO catalyst in propellant is improved to a maximum by kneading method.

By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. In addition, the high-power rocketry community regularly uses APCP propellabts the form of commercially available propellant “reloads”, as well as single-use motors.

International Journal of Energetic Materials and Chemical Propulsion

When a composite propellant is used, like AP-HTPB, the combustion process depends on the diffusion of the gases generated on the initial decomposition of the oxidizer, which surrounds the binder molecules at the burning porpellants.


The addition of burning rates catalysts like Fe 2 O 3 on the propellant formulation alters the thermal decomposition behavior of AP, and consequently the thermal decomposition behavior of the propellant. Having in account such assumptions, eq. In addition, the chemical composition of the gases change, varying the effective heat capacity of the gas.

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The hydrochloric acid component of APCP exhaust leads to the condensation of atmospheric moisture in the plume and this enhances the visible signature of the contrail. The combustion simulation results may be observed in the figure below, which show the behavior of AP combustion with different internal pressures of the combustion chamber. Propellajts were both derived from the basic kinetic equations for heterogeneous chemical reactions and therefore have a wide application, as it is not necessary to know the reaction order [ 19 ] or the conversional function to determine the kinetic parameters.

Ammonium perchlorate composite propellant

For RMS, the APCP ” grains ” cylinders of propellant are loaded into the reusable motor casing along with a sequence of insulator disks and o-rings and a graphite or glass-filled phenolic resin nozzle.

Both agencies set forth rules regarding the lropellants classification of rocket motors and the level of certification required by rocketeers in pdopellants to purchase certain impulse size motors.

This article has an unclear citation style. Due this, the flame structure of AP composite propellants is complex and locally three-dimensional in shape. Kneading procedures are always employed to improve the composition dispersity porpellants HTPB propellants as well as nano-CuO catalyst.

As the surface of the propellant burns the shape evolves a subject of study in internal ballisticsmost often changing the propellant surface area exposed to the combustion gases. During the combustion process propellats AP crystals at high pressures, is possible to observe the formation of a tiny layer of ammonium perchlorate in hgpb phase at the grain surface [ 3 ], followed by a region where it is presented in gaseous phase.


However, most researches tend to focus on the catalysis of the diameter or variety of nanomaterials [ 23 ]. This mechanism was proposed by Gross [ 6 ], according to literature data. Several geometric configurations are often used depending on the application and desired thrust curve:. How to cite and reference Link to this chapter Copy to clipboard.

Rocketry Model rocketry Rocket propellants Solid fuels. The pgopellants rate is heavily dependent on mean AP particle size as the AP absorbs heat to decompose into a gas before it can oxidize the fuel components.

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Because of the size discrepancy between the AP and Al, Al will often take an interstitial position in a pseudo-lattice of AP particles. The explosion heat value of these data increase with the kneading time before 3 hours, and the value decrease with the kneading time after 3 hours.

;ropellants, a particle’s rate of temperature rise is maximized when the particle size is minimized. However, after 3 hours kneading, the mean propeplants of combustion heat in Table 4 decreases with the kneading increase.

Also, it is interesting to highlight that in this case the carbon monoxide molar fraction suffers a decrease, because the restriction of oxidizer species makes that the oxygen presented in CO to be also used as oxidizing source, viewing the reactive behavior of this specie. The propellant is most often composed of ammonium perchlorate APan elastomer binder such as hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene HTPB or polybutadiene acrylic acid acrylonitrile prepolymer PBANhtob metal typically aluminumand various burn rate catalysts.

Wp receive news and publication updates for Journal of Propellants, enter your email address in the box below. This page was last edited on 24 Octoberat Meanwhile, the decrease ratios of STD and RSD of the explosion heat are very smooth when kneading time of propellant less than 3 hours.