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The hanger hardware clamps, rods, etc. The manufacturer must always provide a fatigue curve or sorne other type of adjustment factor in order to determine the allowable displacementforadifferentnumberofcycles.
It is best ifthis criteria is used in conjunction with some pre-design of support locations, such as that discussed in Section 2. For example, a l2x8 standard wall reducer may be modeled as a inch standard wall pipe Capproximately the average of the inlet and outlet pipesor as two segments, with outer diameters and wall thicknesses interpolated hetween the two. Including hoop and radial stresses present in sustained loadings only in the stress intensity calculation makes the COADE Pipe Stress Analysis Seminar Notes calculation much more difficult.
A subsequent analysis showed that a temperature increase in the adjacent vessel and piping system alongwith a relocation of pipe restraints for the new operating conditions made several years ago caused the stresses to exceed the expansion allowables.
As the load ram p-u p time such as the opening time of a relief valve increases, or the load coace decreases such as fluid hammer in a short piping legthe DLF cowde decrease as well. Where excessive displacement is a problem, increasing the number of convolutions can be the solution.
The simplest method of estimating pipe stresses due to weight is to first consider the pipe as being a continuous run, with supports located at constant intervals this is a somewhat accurate model ofpiping traveling horizontally, mounted on racks, and with a minimum ofin-line components: Ifthe plant site is greater than miles from either the east or the gulfcoasts, then a seminarr of miles should be used no credit may he taken for any plant site greater than miles from any ofthese hurricane prone areas.
COADE Pipe Stress Analysis Seminar Notes
The proliferation of easy-to-use pipe stress software has had a two-fold effect: Expansion joints resemble bellows and provide very flexible pipe legs within semniar short leg lengths.
User Defined Operating Load – In some piping configurations the program selected operating or hot load on the spring doesn’t unload the equipment nozzle sufficiently to satisfy manufacturers aUowables.
Earthquake load magnitudes are given in terms of the gravitational acceleration constant, i. Examining a typical pipe support detail: Since the cold load is almost always unbalanced vs.
John is correct that the B Please advise if possible regards tim. In these cases, the user may instruct the design algorithm to bypass consideration of short range springs and start with mid-range springs frrst unless space limitations require it.
Failure may occur with a single application ofthe load. Allowable Load Variation – As noted above, this is computed as: This standard calculates seismic g-factors in a manner similar to those of the building codes, based upon earthquake potential, structure importance, structure type, structure fundamental frequency, and soil parameters. In fact, the solution to a problem caused by one of the loading types often causes a problem with the other loading type.
One definition of a spring support is: Note however that the bending flexibility coefficient should not he used in any piping program. Rigid elements whose cumulative weights equal that ot the torged titting and tlanges.
Although the course is taught using the CAESAR II Pipe Stress Analysis Software, the skills learned here are directly applicable to any means of pipe stress analysis, whether the engineer uses a competing software program or even manual calculational methods.
Since this is a displacement load, it is a secondary load, and therefore is not considered here.
The manufacturer must always provide a fatigue curve or some other type of adjustment factor in order to determine the allowable displacement for a different number of cycles. Sh is defined as the minimum of: The user should specify Yes, if: Cold load design balances the weight loads in the cold, rather than the hot, condition.
Most hanger vendors provide hanger tables with notees ranges defined: Separators modeled as pipe Location Figure An angle valve could be modeled as shown in Figure When not provided by the client, there are a number of sources for obtaining the seismic gfactors: Consider the following geometry, of a large diameter pipe supported hy a dual spring assemhly: Figure The following sections of these seminar notes provide more detailed methods for modeling and analyzing specifie components of the piping model.
Sifs, interpretations,Coade seminar notes and confussion – Intergraph CADWorx & Analysis
Normally the member considered is one-dimensional, homogenous with respect to cross-sectional and material parameters, and restrained in a number of degreesof-freedom atone or bothends. Sh is roughly defined as the minimum of: The elements are further defmed by a constant non-varying along the element length set of stiffness parameters i.
In cases where nozzle operating loads are not critical, and fit-up problems are more of a concem, CAESAR II can provide Cold Load Design, where the weight loads are balanced in the cold, rather than the hot, condition. Expansion joints may vary in terms of the number and type of convolutions, the material, the number of plies, all ofwhich effect the pressure capacity, the stiffness, and the allowable movement.